Monday, December 31, 2007

Serbia's appalling mental health crisis

BRUSSELS, Nov. 13 — A 21-year-old man with Down syndrome tied to a metal crib for 11 years. Children, naked from the waist down, left to eat and defecate in their beds. A 7-year-old girl with fluid in her brain left untreated “because she will die anyway.”

Marc Schneider/Mental Disability Rights International

A dehydrated girl is tied to a crib at an institution in Kulina. A group says such problems could have been prevented.

These are some of the allegations of abuse at Serbian state mental institutions and orphanages described in a report to be released Wednesday by Mental Disability Rights International, a group based in Washington that spent four years investigating the treatment of some of the 17,200 children and adults with disabilities in institutions in Serbia.

Child Psych Screening Criticism

On Dec. 27, the Boston Globe ran a story about how Massachusetts plans to do mental screening on children.  The new requirement applies to the 460,000 children and young adults covered by state's Medicaid program.   Below are some responses to the article:
Boston Globe
Screening brings labeling, drugs
December 31, 2007
AS A psychiatrist since 1947, I am appalled that mental health screening is now being required of Massachusetts children on Medicaid ("Mental screening for young to begin," Page A1, Dec. 27). Such screening greatly exaggerates the significance of the normal variations in psychological state.

Normal kids will therefore be labeled "sick" and referred for "treatment." That labeling is often harmful in itself; once tagged, how does a kid prove he's not mentally ill?

In some middle-class families, treatment may be individual or family counseling. Whether it helps or is merely wasteful, it usually causes relatively little harm. For Medicaid kids, however, treatment will almost always involve powerful drugs whose serious side effects can include the stunting of growth. Mental health screening is thus a harmful invasion of the privacy of Medicaid youngsters.

Roslyn, N.Y.
Boston Globe
A needless strain on health dollars

December 31, 2007
WITH ALL of the strain Medicaid has been reported to suffer already - and health coverage in Massachusetts and in other states in general - what makes mental health screening a good idea?

An almost automatic $4.5-million hit - if anyone bothered to do the math - for a written questionnaire? To ask if your toddler has been fussy? If your teenager has been emotional? Duh.

And this is going to be a yearly thing. Add to that the prescriptions that will inevitably come, and the doctor followups, oh geesh Wouldn't that money be better spent on schools? That could be more than 100 teachers' salaries.

Exeter, N.H.

Massachusetts Takes Wrong Turn On Mental Health Screening
By Tony Zizza .

A recent news article by Carey Goldberg in the Boston Globe newspaper ought to have Massachusetts parents fuming mad. In fact, parents nationwide need to be on the alert as well. The long and stretched out arms of psychiatry are poised to put a choke-hold on your children.

Think I am kidding? Think again. In Carey Goldberg's December 27th article, ("Mental screening for young to begin: Mass. doctors to offer questionnaires for children on Medicaid"), we find out that on December 31st, "Annual checkups for the nearly half a million Massachusetts children on Medicaid will carry a new requirement: Doctors must offer simple questionnaires to detect warning signs of possible mental health problems, from autism in toddlers to depression in teens."

This is scary stuff. Pay close attention to this part again, "from autism in toddlers to depression in teens." Perhaps I am paranoid, but I believe a Brave New World is here. Psychiatry just had an incredible cash cow handed to them on a silver platter through the force of government. That is, Massachusetts taxpayers fund Medicaid. In turn, Massachusetts taxpayers are supporting through no choice of their own the inevitable drugging of children.

Instead, we twist things to try and justify forced drugging and the destruction of informed consent by throwing around subjective "national estimates" that Carey Goldberg included in his article that attempt to show "about 10 percent of children have some sort of significant psycho-social problem from hyperactivity to anxiety to stress from living amid domestic violence." Again, it appears children and young adults in Massachusetts, and nationwide, can no longer experience any kind of feeling or thought or deep reflection without it being subjected to a mental health screening or antidepressant psychiatric drug. This isn't medicine. It's medicine gone mad.

Massachusetts has taken a wrong turn here on mental health screening. Cute code words and catch phrases don't cut it. Lisa Lambert, executive director of the Parent/Professional Advocacy League, falsely compares the screening of children and young adults for mental illness to that of acting as a "check engine light" for parents to gauge if their children have any problems. I'm sorry, growing up is a little more complicated than this. On the other hand, mental health screening sets off alarms when no alarm needs to be sounded.

It's time for parents all over this country to get in the front seat when it comes to parenting their children and young adults. I find it hard to believe a subjective mental health "questionnaire" can serve somehow as a substitute parent. Something is seriously wrong when 460,000 Massachusetts children and young adults wake up one morning to find out that they must now submit to a subjective mental health screening at their next annual checkup.  

Wednesday, December 26, 2007

Essay: The nonsense of "chemical imbalance"

Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect between the Advertisements and
the Scientific Literature


More on the "Chemical Imbalance" nonsense

In June of 2005 Tom Cruise shook the world with his statements about "chemical imbalance" on the Today Show with Matt Laurer. 
Since that time Florida researchers have investigated the pharmaceutical / psychiatric claims of "chemical imbalance" and recently a study was released which you can find here:  entitled
"The Media and the Chemical Imbalance Theory of Depression"
The researchers examined media reports referring to this chemical imbalance theory and asked reporters for evidence supporting their claims. Responses were received from multiple sources, including practicing psychiatrists, clients, and a major pharmaceutical company. The evidence offered was not compelling, and some sources flatly stated the proposed theory of imbalance was known to be incorrect.
VIDEO:  These Florida researchers discuss their earlier findings of "chemical imbalance" on Tampa Bay's Fox 13,  Kathy Fountain show: 

"There is no such thing as a chemical imbalance"

This academic paper proves it:

In an earlier paper, we pointed out that to our knowledge; there is not a single peer-reviewed article that can accurately be cited to directly support claims of serotonin deficiency in any mental disorder. Based on our dialogue with the mainstream media, there appears to be no reason to alter  this claim. In an effort to continue this conversation, we welcome any replies to the question: What is the evidence that depression is caused by a chemical imbalance?


Wednesday, December 12, 2007

Counselor cited for phony billing in affair with ex-patient

Counselor cited for phony billing in affair with ex-patient
Dec. 12, 2007

OCALA -- The Florida Department of Health has disciplined an Ocala mental health counselor accused of phony billing designed to hide an extramarital affair with a former patient.

His wife - now his former wife - kept the books.

Michael Kean Weaver, 52, was reprimanded on Nov. 19 by the State Board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy, and Mental Health Counseling. He currently practices at Rapha Counseling Center in Ocala.

His alleged actions violated a state law prohibiting "misleading, deceptive, untrue, or fraudulent representations in the practice of mental health counseling."

He was fined $1,000 and ordered to pay $3,368 in costs and complete 12 hours of ethics classes.

According to the administrative complaint, Weaver had a physical relationship with a former patient from July 2002 through March 2004. Weaver had counseled the patient from June 1997 to April 2000.

To keep his wife from finding out about the affair, Weaver created billing records that indicated the patient received treatment through March 2004, according to the complaint.

In a settlement signed Sept. 12, Weaver acknowledged probable cause for the case against him but did not accept or deny the allegations. He could not immediately be reached for comment on Wednesday.   

Saturday, December 08, 2007

Crimes In U.S. Nursing Homes


Prescription Abuse Seen In U.S. Nursing Homes

Powerful Antipsychotics Used to Subdue Elderly; Huge Medicaid Expense

December 4, 2007; Page A1

In recent years, Medicaid has spent more money on antipsychotic drugs for Americans than on any other class of pharmaceuticals -- including antibiotics, AIDS drugs or medicine to treat high-blood pressure.

One reason: Nursing homes across the U.S. are giving these drugs to elderly patients to quiet symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Nearly 30% of the total nursing-home population is receiving antipsychotic drugs, according to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, known as CMS. In a practice known as "off label" use of prescription drugs, patients can get these powerful medicines whether they are psychotic or not. CMS says nearly 21% of nursing-home patients who don't have a psychosis diagnosis are on antipsychotic drugs.

That is what happened to a woman listed in New York state health department inspection records as Resident #18. The 84-year-old Alzheimer's patient, who lives at the Orchard Manor nursing home in Medina, N.Y., likes to wander and roll her wheelchair around her unit, according to a report filed earlier this year, and sometimes she nervously taps her foot.

To address her behavior, which was considered disruptive, Resident #18 was given a powerful antipsychotic drug called Seroquel, a drug approved for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Resident #18 is not psychotic and Seroquel -- like other atypical antipsychotics -- carries a "black box" warning that elderly dementia patients using it face a higher risk of death.

"She is a handful," says Thomas Morien, administrator of Orchard Manor. "Other residents complain about her because often at night, she will get up and go to their rooms." The patient has since been taken off the drugs.

The growing off-label use of antipsychotic medicines in the elderly is coming under fire from regulators, academics, patient advocates and even some in the nursing-home industry.

"You walk into facilities where you see residents slumped over in their wheelchairs, their heads are hanging, and they're out of it, and that is unacceptable," says Christie Teigland, director of informatics research for the New York Association of Homes and Services for the Aging, a not-for-profit industry group. Her research, which she believes reflects national trends, shows that about one-third of dementia patients in New York's nursing homes are on antipsychotics; some facilities have rates as high as 60% to 70%. "These drugs are being given way too much to this frail elderly population," Dr. Teigland says.

More here:

Omaha Shooter Robert Hawkins Had Been "Treated" For ADHD

Omaha Shooter Robert Hawkins Had Been "Treated" For ADHD, Depression
Thursday, December 06, 2007 by: Mike Adams

(NewsTarget) America seems shocked that, yet again, a young male would
pick up an assault rifle and murder his fellow citizens, then take his
own life. This is what happened last night in Omaha, Nebraska, where the
19-year-old Hawkins killed himself and eight other people with an
assault rifle. Those lacking keen observation skills are quick to blame
guns for this tragedy, but others who are familiar with the history of
such violent acts by young males instantly recognize a more sinister
connection: A history of treatment with psychiatric drugs for depression
and ADHD.

It all started in Columbine, Colorado, when Eric Harris and Dylan
Klebold massacred their way into the history books on April 20, 1999 by
killing 12 and wounding 23 people. The mainstream media virtually
glorified the event, yet utterly failed to report the connection between
violence in young men and treatment with psychiatric drugs.
(Both Harris and Klebold were taking antidepressant drugs.)

It's a little known fact that antidepressant drugs have never been
tested on children nor approved by the FDA for use on children. It is
well established in the scientific literature, however, that such drugs
cause young men to think violent thoughts and commit violent acts. This
is precisely why the U.K. has outright banned the prescribing of such
drugs to children. Yet here in the United States
-- the capitol of gun violence by kids on depression drugs -- the FDA
and drug companies pretend that mind-altering drugs have no link
whatsoever to behavior.

Enormous evidence linking mind-altering drugs with violent acts In 2005,
I reported on this site that Eli Lilly had full knowledge of a 1200%
increase in suicide risk for takers of their Prozac drug, a popular
anti-depressant SSRI medication. (See

In 2006, we reported the results of a study published in the Archives of
General Psychiatry showing that teens taking antidepressant drugs are
more likely to commit suicide (and to be "successful" at completing the
act). See

On September 11, 2006, I reported on the link between antidepressant
drugs and violent behavior yet again. (See
) In that article, I explained, "If you're going to alter the brain
chemistry of these children, you had better be prepared for the results.
The result we're seeing now is mass killings. Elsewhere around the
world, where children aren't doped up on all these drugs, we don't see
this kind of behavior. This is what happens when you change children's
brain chemistry; you get these results..."

The very next day, we published a report about the anti-depressant drug
Paxil doubling the risk of violent behavior. (See ) In that article, I stated, "This
finding helps explain why school shootings are almost always conducted
by children who are taking antidepressants. We also know that SSRIs
cause children to disconnect from reality. When you combine that with a
propensity for violence, you create a dangerous recipe for school
shootings and other adolescent violence.

In April of this year, I also reported on the link between
antidepressant drugs and the Virginia Tech shooting. See

What I said in that article has urgent application right now, following
the Omaha shooting:

A study published in the Public Library of Science Medicine (an open
source medical journal) explored these same links in detail. (See
Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and
Law, by David Healy, Andrew Herxheimer, David B. Menkes)

The authors note that "Some regulators, such as the Canadian regulators,
have also referred to risks of treatment-induced activation leading to
both self-harm and harm to others" and the "United States labels for all
antidepressants as of August 2004 note that 'anxiety, agitation, panic
attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity,
akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania have been
reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with
antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other
indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric'".

In other words, the link between antidepressants and violence has been
known for years by the very people manufacturing, marketing or
prescribing the drugs. As the author of the study mentioned above
concluded, "The new issues highlighted by these cases need urgent
examination jointly by jurists and psychiatrists in all countries where
antidepressants are widely used."

That was last year, well before this latest shooting. The warning signs
were there, and they've been visible for a long time. Medical
authorities can hardly say they are "shocked" by this violent behavior.
After all, the same pattern of violence among antidepressant takers has
been observed, documented and published in numerous previous cases.

Not surprised at what happened in Omaha
The people of Omaha may be surprised at what happened there yesterday,
but I'm not. Why? Because the shooter, Robert Hawkins, had a history of
being "treated" for both depression and ADHD (Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder). (Source: Associated Press)

And what is the standard American psychiatric "treatment" for these
conditions? Mind-altering drugs, of course.

ADHD, for example, is treated with a drug that used to be an illegal
street drug called "speed." It's an amphetamine, and recent research
published in the August, 2007 issue of the American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry reveals that Ritalin and other ADHD drugs actually
stunt the growth of children, causing their brains and bodies to be
physically altered. (See )

Depression, of course, is treated with SSRI drugs, none of which have
ever been safety approved by the FDA for use on children or teens. In
other words, the use of these drugs on teenagers is a grand, mind-
altering medical experiment, and what we just witnessed in Omaha is one
result of that experiment.

There will be more. I hate to be accurate about this grisly prediction,
because I grieve for the families of those lost to
pharmaceutically-induced violence, but the truth is that until we stop
drugging our children with psychotropic drugs, the shootings are not
going to stop.

Big Pharma is to blame for this one, not the manufacturer of the gun.
That gun has a trigger, you see, and the trigger was pulled by a finger.
The finger was connected via a series of nerves to a brain, and that
brain was altered by psychotropic drugs. The brain wasn't functioning
like a normal, healthy, well-nourished brain; it was functioning like a
zoned out "zombie" brain permanently distorted by psychiatric drugs.

Sending a teenager out into the public doped up on mind-altering drugs
that we KNOW are linked to violence -- and jacked up on junk foods (he
worked at McDonald's) -- is a certain recipe for disaster. Big Pharma
executives, drug reps and the irresponsible psychiatrists who dish these
pills out to teenagers might as well have just walked right into the
mall and set off a bomb themselves. These are the people ultimately
responsible for the tragedy in Omaha. Hawkins may have pulled the
trigger, but modern psychiatry drugged him with violence- inducing
chemicals. The fact that such drugs promote violence isn't even
disputed. It's printed right on the warning labels of those drugs!

And as sad as this tragedy is for all those affected by this
medication-induced violence, the truly sad part is that America still
hasn't learned this lesson. If you drug the children with chemicals that
cause violence, you're going to see more shootings. It's as simple as
that. And if you take away the guns, you'll see bombs, knives or
machetes used in these attacks. When disturbed young boys are doped up
on psychotropic drugs that promote violence -- and they're drugged by
the hundreds of thousands -- it's like playing a national game of
Russian roulette (with apologies to Russia). Sooner or later, another
kid whose mind has been altered by Ritalin, Prozac or some other drug is
going to walk into yet another school or mall and start killing people.
This kind of behavior is a direct product of chemical-based psychiatric

The criminals running modern psychiatry
In fact, I predict we'll see another such shooting in the next 30 days,
if not sooner. And yet, even with the increasing frequency of these
events, the unholy alliance between Big Pharma and the immensely evil
psychiatric industry will continue. Yet more children will be put on
mind-altering drugs that stunt their growth, alter their brain
chemistry, and turn them into mind-numbed massacre drones who acquire
dangerous weapons and open fire in public places.

The psychiatric industry, though, thinks that yet MORE children need
"treatment" with drugs for ADHD and depression. In fact, an industry
press release recently claimed that only one-third of those children
"suffering" from ADHD are receiving appropriate "treatment" for the
condition. Of course, those are just code words for "drugging the
children with high-profit pharmaceuticals." When the psychiatric
authorities say "treatment," what they mean is "more drugging."

Want to learn the horrifying, yet true, history of modern psychiatry?
Check out - the Citizens' Commission on Human Rights.
They have a documentary so downright shocking that I couldn't even
finish watching the whole thing. It's called Psychiatry: An Industry of

Also be sure to check out the shocking book by Kelly Patricia O'Meara
called Psyched Out: How Psychiatry Sells Mental Illness and Pushes Pills
That Kill. This book explains exactly why kids like Robert Hawkins who
have been treated with psychiatric drugs end up shooting innocents.

What could have healed Robert Hawkins and saved lives So what's the
solution to all this? Robert Hawkins could have been healed with a
radical change in diet that supports healthy brain chemistry. His
parents or caretakers should have stopped the junk food, ended the
medication and put him on raw, living foods and daily superfood
smoothies, fresh vegetable juices, raw nuts and seeds and other
wholesome, non-processed foods. Nutrition is the single most powerful
factor determining healthy moods and behavior, and virtually all young
men who commit violent acts (including the vast majority of those
imprisoned in the U.S. today) suffer from wild nutritional deficiencies.

Robert Hawkins could have been a healthy, stable and normal kid with the
help of some real food, real nutrition and real love from a supporting
family. Instead, he lived on junk food, worked at McDonald's and took
medication pills as directed by his psychiatric doctor. The results
speak for themselves: This recipe of processed food and mind-altering
drugs created a monster, and yesterday in Omaha, that monster exploded
in a rage of violence.

If we don't learn from all this and stop drugging our nation's children,
then those innocents in Omaha will have died in vain. And I ask the
question: How many more innocent Americans must pay the price for
medication-induced violence?

Ask yourself one question: Why does the FDA continue to allow these
dangerous drugs to be prescribed to children and teens when 1) They have
never been tested on children or teens, and 2) Other countries have
already banned the prescribing of these drugs to children and teens?

Story Notes: The Associated Press originally reported Hawkins' age as 20
years old, but corrected it to 19 years old following a correction by
local police. Hawkins was not reported to have been taking medications
at the precise time of the shooting, but his caretaker, Debora
Maruca-Kovac, said that "he had been treated in the past for depression
and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder." We do not know exactly
which drugs Hawkins had been treated with in the past, and we hope the
names of those drugs will surface in future reports on this tragedy.

NewsTarget deeply regrets the loss of life witnessed in this event, and
we commit to doing our part to end these medication-induced crimes that
continue to be perpetrated by Big Pharma and modern psychiatry. You have
permission to forward or reprint this article, with appropriate credit
and a link back to this URL.

Friday, December 07, 2007

Florida Psychs in Hot Water and a U.S. Senator Investigating Psych Drugs in Nursing Homes

Indian River County Psychiatrist to pay fine
By James Kirley
December 6, 2007
Vero Beach, Florida

Dr. Joseph Altieri, a Vero Beach psychiatrist, has agreed to pay a $15,000 administrative fine and perform 100 hours of community service to resolve a complaint brought by the Florida Department of Health last fall.

It claimed Altieri had prescribed "a constantly changing cocktail of drugs" that included methadone, Zoloft and Xanax to a 29-year-old man with a history of problems with pain pills.

Another part of the same complaint alleged Altieri prescribed the narcotic OxyContin to a 47-year-old woman with "unsubstantiated chronic pain" and a history of heroin and methadone addictions.

Both the unidentified man and woman were terminated as patients by Altieri for missing appointments and "noncompliance," the state's complaint noted.

Phone calls to Altieri's office Tuesday and Wednesday seeking comment were not returned.

South Florida Sun-Sentinel
Fort Lauderdale therapist charged with Medicaid fraud
December 6, 2007

FORT LAUDERDALE - Authorities arrested a therapist at her Fort Lauderdale home Thursday morning for falsifying more than $6,000 worth of claims to Medicaid, according to the state Attorney General's Office.

Jennifer Baxt, 34, is being held at the Broward County jail and faces a charge of grand theft.

Baxt was a contract employee for South Florida Family Centers Inc. in Tamarac. She was a licensed marriage and family health therapist and a licensed mental health counselor, according to documents.

The Medicaid Fraud Control Unit investigated Baxt after a mother told them that Baxt had sought reimbursement from Medicaid for behavior therapy that the woman's child did not receive, according to court documents.

Investigators discovered that between August and October in 2006, Baxt scheduled 71 appointments at the homes of 11 patients with developmental disabilities, but only arrived at seven sessions. Baxt still claimed financial compensation from Medicaid and even made up visit summaries and forged patient signatures, investigators said.

She could get up to five years in prison and fined $5,000 on top of restitution to the Medicaid program, according to officials.
Grassley: Review Antipsychotics In Nursing Homes
December 6th, 2007
By Ed Silverman

The Republican from Iowa and ranking member of the Senate Finance Committee is turning his sights to nursing homes. After reading how antipsychotics are overprescribed and Medicaid picks up the tab, Chuck wants the Inspector General for the Department of Health and Human Services to investigate patient safety, taxpayer liability and off-label usage.

“Along with overall quality of care provided to a nursing home resident, it’s of tremendous concern that federal programs are paying for prescription drugs that could be unnecessary or potentially harmful for people living in nursing homes,” Grassley says in a statement. “Independent scrutiny needs to be given to the prescribing practices going on with this very vulnerable population and what’s motivating those practices.”

Grassley has also asked the federal agency that oversees nursing home quality to report on its response to nursing homes that misuse prescription drugs, and he has asked Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca and Eli Lilly, which sell Risperdal, Seroquel and Zyprexa, respectively, for info about their marketing efforts with regard to nursing home residents. Grassley was responding to a story in The Wall Street Journal, although The St. Petersburg Times ran a similar piece recently, as well.  

Tuesday, December 04, 2007

flu drugs in children

FDA Ponders Psychiatric Warning for Common Flu Drugs

An FDA staff report recommends adding label warnings about possible neuropsychiatric side effects in individuals taking the influenza drugs oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza).

The report was prepared for a meeting of the Pediatric Advisory Committee to take place this week. The FDA found 596 cases of neuropsychiatric events associated with oseltamivir and 115 with zanamivir. The cases, mostly in people age 21 or younger and mostly from Japan, included delirium, hallucinations, and impulsive behavior, including a desire to jump. Five fatalities were associated with oseltamivir use while none were associated with zanamvir.

The agency cautioned it could not rule out the possibility that the behavior was due to the illness rather than the treatment. However, the reports "raise the question" of whether the events result from the neuraminidase inhibitor class. It said "it seems prudent" for both drugs to carry label warnings of hallucinations, delirium, and abnormal behavior.

Glaxo and Roche, which make the two drugs, said label updates are unnecessary, because the events could have resulted from flu symptoms.

FDA staff report (Free PDF)
Bloomberg News story (Free)
GlaxoSmithKline response (Free PDF)
Hoffman-LaRoche response (Free PDF)

Drugs Are Not the Answer for ADHD - Articles

Drugs Are Not the Answer for ADHD

Research has shown that treating children who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with drugs is not effective in the long-term. After three years of treatment, drugs such as Ritalin and Concerta work no better than therapy.

Long-term use of the drugs can also stunt children's growth, and the benefits of the drugs have been exaggerated.

An influential 1999 study seemed to find that medication worked better than behavioral therapy for ADHD after one year of use. This finding caused a vast increase in prescriptions.

But now, after longer-term analysis, the report's co-author, Professor William Pelham of the University of Buffalo, has stated, "I think that we exaggerated the beneficial impact of medication in the first study. We had thought that children medicated longer would have better outcomes. That didn't happen to be the case. There's no indication that medication is better than nothing in the long run."

Pelham said that medication had "no beneficial effects" and that in fact, the drugs had a negative impact in terms of growth rate.

The National Institute for Clinical Excellence in England is currently revising their treatment guidelines for ADHD to include strategies that will likely involve training for parents as well as "behavioral interventions".

"The important thing is that we have an approach which doesn't focus just on one type of treatment," Dr. Tim Kendall, chair for the working group, said.